Borrelia persistence “Bench to Bedside” E-Colloquium

Credit pending approval. Invisible International's Christine Green, MD brings together Monica Embers, PhD ("bench") and Kenneth Liegner, MD ("bedside") in a discussion about borrelia persistence.

Panel participants

Christine Green, MD
Invisible International

Monica Embers, PhD
Tulane National Primate Research Center
Tulane University

Kenneth Liegner, MD


Invisible International’s Christine Green, MD brings together Monica Embers, PhD (“bench”) and Kenneth Liegner, MD (“bedside”) in a discussion about borrelia persistence.

Bench-to-Bedside E-Colloquium Education Platform

Scientists working in labs and clinicians often lack the opportunities to share their experiences on the diseases that they treat and study. Invisible International is bridging the gap by bringing together these experts in lively, interactive discussions that provide insights into invisible diseases such as long-haul tick-borne illness and COVID-19. These knowledge-sharing events will be held monthly, pending funding, and a web-based archive will provide 24/7 worldwide access to the sessions, annotated with relevant research citations. This knowledge repository will help propel clinical and bench science forward for faster progress.

Application for CME credit is pending.

Determination of credit is pending.

Evidence-based bibliography for further study

Caskey, J. R. and M. E. Embers (2015). “Persister Development by Borrelia burgdorferi Populations In Vitro.” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 59(10): 6288-6295.

Cheslock, M. A. and M. E. Embers (2019). “Human Bartonellosis: An Underappreciated Public Health Problem?” Trop Med Infect Dis 4(2).

Crossland, N. A., et al. (2018). “Late Disseminated Lyme Disease: Associated Pathology and Spirochete Persistence Posttreatment in Rhesus Macaques.” The American Journal of Pathology 188(3): 672-682.

Elsner, R. A., et al. (2015). “Suppression of Long-Lived Humoral Immunity Following Borrelia burgdorferi Infection.” PLoS Pathog 11(7): e1004976.

Embers, M. E., et al. (2004). “Survival strategies of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease.” Microbes Infect 6(3): 312-318.

Embers, M. E., et al. (2017). “Variable manifestations, diverse seroreactivity and post-treatment persistence in non-human primates exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi by tick feeding.” PLoS ONE 12(12): e0189071.

Gao J, Gong Z, Montesano D, Glazer E, Liegner K. “Repurposing” Disulfiram in the Treatment of Lyme Disease and Babesiosis: Retrospective Review of First 3 Years’ Experience in One Medical Practice. Antibiotics (Basel). 2020 Dec 4;9(12):868. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics9120868. PMID: 33291557; PMCID: PMC7761882.

Liegner KB, Shapiro JR, Ramsay D, Halperin AJ, Hogrefe W, Kong L. Recurrent erythema migrans despite extended antibiotic treatment with minocycline in a patient with persisting Borrelia burgdorferi infection. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993 Feb;28(2 Pt 2):312-4. doi: 10.1016/0190-9622(93)70043-s. PMID: 8436647.

Liegner KB. Lyme disease: the sensible pursuit of answers. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Aug;31(8):1961-3. doi: 10.1128/jcm.31.8.1961-1963.1993. PMID: 8370722; PMCID: PMC265679.

Liegner K.B., Duray P., Agricola M., Rosenkilde C., Yannuzzi L., Ziska M., Tilton R.C., Hulinska D., Hubbard J., Fallon B.A. Lyme Disease and the Clinical Spectrum of Antibiotic-Responsive Chronic Meningoencephalomyelitides. J. Spirochetal Tick Borne Dis. 1997;4:61–73. 

Liegner KB. Disulfiram (Tetraethylthiuram Disulfide) in the Treatment of Lyme Disease and Babesiosis: Report of Experience in Three Cases. Antibiotics (Basel). 2019 May 30;8(2):72. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics8020072. PMID: 31151194; PMCID: PMC6627205.

Sharma, B., et al. (2015). “Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, forms drug-tolerant persister cells.” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.Miklossy, J. (2011). “Alzheimer’s disease – a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch’s and Hill’s criteria.” Journal of Neuroinflammation 8: 90.

Tracy, K. E. and N. Baumgarth (2017). “Borrelia burgdorferi Manipulates Innate and Adaptive Immunity to Establish Persistence in Rodent Reservoir Hosts.” Front Immunol 8: 116.

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Course Includes

  • 1 Lesson
  • 1 Quiz
  • Course Certificate