Bartonelloses reservoir hosts: Bats, cats, dogs, mice and men

1.0 CME. This module provides an overview of Bartonella spp. infection, both pathogenic and species-adapted, in various hosts and reservoirs, including bats, cats, dogs, and people.


Edward Breitschwerdt, DVM
Melanie S. Steele Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases
Comparative Medicine Institute
NCSU College of Veterinary Medicine


This module provides an overview of Bartonella spp. infection, both pathogenic and species-adapted, in various hosts and reservoirs, including bats, cats, dogs, and people.

Learning objectives

  1. Recognize Bartonelloses in humans
  2. Avoid Bartonelloses in humans by providing preventative techniques through counseling

Learners may receive credit for this course through either the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) or the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP).

Invisible International is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Invisible International designates this enduring material activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

ACCME Activity Release Date: 8/1/2023; Expiration 7/31/2024.

Additionally, this session, Bartonelloses reservoir hosts: Bats, cats, dogs, mice and men, is approved for 1 enduring AAFP Prescribed credit.

AAFP Prescribed credit is accepted by the American Medical Association as equivalent to AMA PRA Category 1 credit(s)™ toward the AMA Physician’s Recognition Award. When applying for the AMA PRA, Prescribed credit earned must be reported as Prescribed, not as Category 1.

The AAFP has reviewed One Health Medical Education for a Changing Climate and deemed it acceptable for AAFP credit. Term of approval is from 01/02/2024 to 01/01/2025. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Disclosure to Learners

CME content presented to learners is free of commercial bias. No product, service, or therapeutic option will be over‐represented when comparing competing products, services, and therapeutic options. When appropriate, generic names or trade names from several companies will be used.  Unless otherwise noted, none of those who controlled content had any financial relationships with an ineligible company. When a planner or faculty member has disclosed a relevant relationship, that relationship has been mitigated by review of all planning and presentation content.

Planner:  Elizabeth Lee-Lewandrowski, PhD, MPH is a consultant for Quidel Ortho Diagnostic.
Faculty:  Edward Breitschwerdt, DVM, is a consultant for Galaxy Diagnostics, Inc.

Evidence-based bibliography for further study

Bai, Y., Kosoy, M.Y., Boonmar, S., Sawatwong, P., Sangmaneedet, S. and Peruski, L.F., 2010. Enrichment culture and molecular identification of diverse Bartonella species in stray dogs. Veterinary microbiology, 146(3-4), pp.314-319. 

Balakrishnan, N., Musulin, S., Varanat, M., Bradley, J.M. and Breitschwerdt, E.B., 2014. Serological and molecular prevalence of selected canine vector borne pathogens in blood donor candidates, clinically healthy volunteers, and stray dogs in North Carolina. Parasites & vectors, 7(1), pp.1-9. Breitschwerdt et al. Parasites and Vectors 2010

Daszak, P., Cunningham, A.A. and Hyatt, A.D., 2000. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife–threats to biodiversity and human health. science, 287(5452), pp.443-449.

Inoue, K., Maruyama, S., Kabeya, H., Hagiya, K., Izumi, Y., Une, Y. and Yoshikawa, Y., 2009. Exotic small mammals as potential reservoirs of zoonotic Bartonella spp. Emerging infectious diseases, 15(4), p.526. 

Kordick, D.L., Brown, T.T., Shin, K. and Breitschwerdt, E.B., 1999. Clinical and Pathologic Evaluation of ChronicBartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiaeInfection in Cats. Journal of clinical microbiology, 37(5), pp.1536-1547. 

Kordick, D.L., Wilson, K.H., Sexton, D.J., Hadfield, T.L., Berkhoff, H.A. and Breitschwerdt, E.B., 1995. Prolonged Bartonella bacteremia in cats associated with cat-scratch disease patients. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 33(12), pp.3245-3251.

Kosoy, M., Bai, Y., Sheff, K., Morway, C., Baggett, H., Maloney, S.A., Boonmar, S., Bhengsri, S., Dowell, S.F., Sitdhirasdr, A. and Lerdthusnee, K., 2010. Identification of Bartonella infections in febrile human patients from Thailand and their potential animal reservoirs. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 82(6), pp.1140-1145. 

Lashnits, E., Correa, M., Hegarty, B.C., Birkenheuer, A. and Breitschwerdt, E.B., 2018. Bartonella seroepidemiology in dogs from North America, 2008–2014. Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 32(1), pp.222-231.

Lin, E.Y., Tsigrelis, C., Baddour, L.M., Lepidi, H., Rolain, J.M., Patel, R. and Raoult, D., 2010. Candidatus Bartonella mayotimonensis and endocarditis. Emerging infectious diseases, 16(3), p.500. 

Maggi, R.G., Kosoy, M., Mintzer, M. and Breitschwerdt, E.B., 2009. Isolation of Candidatus Bartonella melophagi from human blood. Emerging infectious diseases, 15(1), p.66. 

Perez, C., Maggi, R.G., Diniz, P.P.V.P. and Breitschwerdt, E.B., 2011. Molecular and serological diagnosis of Bartonella infection in 61 dogs from the United States. Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 25(4), pp.805-810. 

Varanat, M., Maggi, R.G., Linder, K.E., Horton, S. and Breitschwerdt, E.B., 2009. Cross-contamination in the molecular detection of Bartonella from paraffin-embedded tissues. Veterinary pathology, 46(5), pp.940-944. 

Veikkolainen, V., Vesterinen, E.J., Lilley, T.M. and Pulliainen, A.T., 2014. Bats as reservoir hosts of human bacterial pathogen, Bartonella mayotimonensis. Emerging infectious diseases, 20(6), p.960. 

Welch, D.F., Carroll, K.C., Hofmeister, E.K., Persing, D.H., Robison, D.A., Steigerwalt, A.G. and Brenner, D.J., 1999. Isolation of a New Subspecies, Bartonella vinsoniisubsp. arupensis, from a Cattle Rancher: Identity with Isolates Found in Conjunction with Borrelia burgdorferiand Babesia microti among Naturally Infected Mice. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37(8), pp.2598-2601.

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Course Includes

  • 1 Lesson
  • 2 Quizzes
  • Course Certificate