Edward Breitschwerdt, DVM
Melanie S. Steele Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases
Comparative Medicine Institute
NCSU College of Veterinary Medicine
This module provides an overview of the history of Bartonella spp infection, from the discovery of Carrion’s disease in South America through trench fever in WWI and the etiology of cat scratch disease in HIV/AIDS epidemic.
- Describe the medically relevant history of bartonelloses prior to the recognition of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic in the 1980’s
- Describe the “rediscovery” of the genus Bartonella as a consequence of the AIDS epidemic
- Describe the medical history associated with the discovery of Cat Scratch Disease and the eventual identification of Bartonella henselae as the definitive causative agent.
This enduring material activity has been reviewed and is acceptable for credit by the American Academy of Family Physicians. The term of approval begins on 04/9/2021 and expires 04/8/2022. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Approved for 1.0 AAFP-prescribed credits.
Evidence-based bibliography for further study
Bafna, S. and Lee, A.G., 1996. Bilateral optic disc edema and multifocal retinal lesions without loss of vision in cat scratch disease. Archives of Ophthalmology, 114(8), pp.1016-1017.
Breitschwerdt, E.B., Maggi, R.G., Sigmon, B. and Nicholson, W.L., 2007. Isolation of Bartonella quintana from a woman and a cat following putative bite transmission. Journal of clinical microbiology, 45(1), pp.270-272.
Daszak, P., Cunningham, A.A. and Hyatt, A.D., 2000. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife–threats to biodiversity and human health. science, 287(5452), pp.443-449.
Golnick K.C., Marotto M.E., Fanous M.M., et al., 1994. Ophthalmic manifestations of Rochalimaea species. Am J Ophthalmol 330, pp. 1509-15.
Jackson, L.A., Perkins, B.A. and Wenger, J.D., 1993. Cat scratch disease in the United States: an analysis of three national databases. American Journal of Public Health, 83(12), pp.1707-1711.
Kordick, D.L., Wilson, K.H., Sexton, D.J., Hadfield, T.L., Berkhoff, H.A. and Breitschwerdt, E.B., 1995. Prolonged Bartonella bacteremia in cats associated with cat-scratch disease patients. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 33(12), pp.3245-3251.
Kordick, D.L., Brown, T.T., Shin, K. and Breitschwerdt, E.B., 1999. Clinical and Pathologic Evaluation of ChronicBartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiaeInfection in Cats. Journal of clinical microbiology, 37(5), pp.1536-1547.
Regnery, R.L., Olson, J.G., Perkins, B.A. and Bibb, W., 1992. Serological response to” Rochalimaea henselae” antigen in suspected cat-scratch disease. The Lancet, 339(8807), pp.1443-1445.
Relman, D.A., Loutit, J.S., Schmidt, T.M., Falkow, S. and Tompkins, L.S., 1990. The agent of bacillary angiomatosis: an approach to the identification of uncultured pathogens. New England Journal of Medicine, 323(23), pp.1573-1580.