Bartonelloses and comparative infectious disease causation

1.0 CME. This module introduces a new postulate of comparative infectious disease for elusive, slow-growing, zoonotic, vector-borne diseases like Bartonella spp infection and describes the comparative features of Bartonellosis in dogs and people with particular attention to geographic and occupational risk factors.

Edward Breitschwerdt, DVM
Melanie S. Steele Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases
Comparative Medicine Institute
NCSU College of Veterinary Medicine

This module introduces a new postulate of comparative infectious disease for elusive, slow-growing, zoonotic, vector-borne diseases like Bartonella spp infection and describes the comparative features of Bartonellosis in dogs and people with particular attention to geographic and occupational risk factors.

Learning objectives:

  1. Describe a new postulate of comparative infectious disease
  2. Describe the comparative disease features of Bartonella spp infection in dogs and people
  3. Describe the geographic and occupational risk factors for Bartonella spp infection

This enduring material activity has been reviewed and is acceptable for credit by the American Academy of Family Physicians. The term of approval begins on 04/9/2021 and expires 04/8/2022. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Approved for 1.0 AAFP-prescribed credits.

Evidence-based bibliography for further study

Albrich, W.C., Kraft, C., Fisk, T. and Albrecht, H., 2004. A mechanic with a bad valve: blood-culture-negative endocarditis. The Lancet infectious diseases, 4(12), pp.777-784. 

Beerlage, C., Varanat, M., Linder, K., Maggi, R.G., Cooley, J., Kempf, V.A. and Breitschwerdt, E.B., 2012. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae as potential causes of proliferative vascular diseases in animals. Medical microbiology and immunology, 201(3), pp.319-326. 

Breitschwerdt, E.B., Atkins, C.E., Brown, T.T., Kordick, D.L. and Snyder, P.S., 1999. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and related members of the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria in dogs with cardiac arrhythmias, endocarditis, or myocarditis. Journal of clinical microbiology, 37(11), pp.3618-3626. Breitschwerdt EB, et. al. JCM, 2009  

Breitschwerdt, E.B., Linder, K.L., Day, M.J., Maggi, R.G., Chomel, B.B. and Kempf, V.A.J., 2013. Koch’s postulates and the pathogenesis of comparative infectious disease causation associated with Bartonella species. Journal of comparative pathology, 148(2-3), pp.115-125. 

Breitschwerdt, E.B., Kordick, D.L., Malarkey, D.E., Keene, B., Hadfield, T.L. and Wilson, K., 1995. Endocarditis in a dog due to infection with a novel Bartonella subspecies. Journal of clinical microbiology, 33(1), pp.154-160.

Donovan, T.A., Fox, P.R., Balakrishnan, N., Ericson, M., Hooker, V. and Breitschwerdt, E.B., 2017. Pyogranulomatous pancarditis with intramyocardial Bartonella henselae San Antonio 2 (BhSA2) in a dog. Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 31(1), p.142.

Kempf, V., Petzold, H. and Autenrieth, I., 2001. Cat scratch disease due to Bartonella henselae infection mimicking parotid malignancy. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 20(10), pp.732-733. 

Kempf, V.A., Volkmann, B., Schaller, M., Sander, C.A., Alitalo, K., Rieß, T. and Autenrieth, I.B., 2001. Evidence of a leading role for VEGF in Bartonella henselae‐induced endothelial cell proliferations. Cellular microbiology, 3(9), pp.623-632. 

Lantos PM, et al. Detection of Bartonella species n the blood of veterinarians and veterinary technicians: a newly recognized occupational hazard? Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014;14(8):563-70. 

Marshall, G.S., 2014. Prolonged and recurrent fevers in children. Journal of Infection, 68, pp.S83-S93. 

Mascarelli, P.E., Iredell, J.R., Maggi, R.G., Weinberg, G. and Breitschwerdt, E.B., 2011. Bartonella species bacteremia in two patients with epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. Journal of clinical microbiology, 49(11), pp.4006-4012. 

Nawrocki, C.C., Max, R.J., Marzec, N.S. and Nelson, C.A., 2020. Atypical Manifestations of Cat-Scratch Disease, United States, 2005–2014. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(7), p.1438.

Pappalardo, B.L., Brown, T., Gookin, J.L., Morrill, C.L. and Breitschwerdt, E.B., 2000. Granulomatous disease associated with Bartonella infection in 2 dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 14(1), pp.37-42. 

Perez, C., Maggi, R.G., Diniz, P.P.V.P. and Breitschwerdt, E.B., 2011. Molecular and serological diagnosis of Bartonella infection in 61 dogs from the United States. Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 25(4), pp.805-810. 

Varanat M et al. Identification of Bartonella henselae in 2 Cats With Pyogranulomatous Myocarditis and Diaphragmatic Myositis. Vet Pathol. 2011. 

Yager, J.A., Best, S.J., Maggi, R.G., Varanat, M., Znajda, N. and Breitschwerdt, E.B., 2010. Bacillary angiomatosis in an immunosuppressed dog. Veterinary dermatology, 21(4), pp.420-428.

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Course Includes

  • 1 Lesson
  • 2 Quizzes
  • Course Certificate